Materials to create layouts

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When prototyping various materials are used, the choice of which depends on the destination layout. Wood, cardboard and paper well handled simple tools and do not require the use of special glues; however, they have many negative qualities, the main of which - weathering exposure, resulting in material swells or shrinks, cracks, warps, etc.

Widespread new polymeric materials - plastics. Their high mechanical strength, weatherability, good machinability different instruments and many other positive qualities distinguish these materials from wood, paper and cardboard.

Layouts used for the manufacture of wood, cardboard, paper, plastics (organic glass, celluloid, tsellon, SNP plastic foams), adhesives, finishing materials, auxiliary materials.

Wood, cardboard, paper.

For working wood is used both softwood and hardwood.

Making models of uses such as conifers: pine, spruce, fir, and others have wood grained, well-sawn, planed and glued together; used primarily for the manufacture bases layouts (podmaketnikov) and in some cases the volume of buildings, for planning layouts, etc.

Hardwood - birch, beech, linden and other different density and homogeneity, well handled and glued, used in planning layouts for manufacturing volumes of buildings and their subsequent pasting or trim, as well as individual parts and assemblies in layouts.

Besides bars and planks can be used perekleynaya plywood, thickness from 3 to 10 mm, solid fiber board and knife or planed veneer of wood (walnut, maple, etc.) with a thickness of 0.5 to 2 mm.

Plywood, hardboard used primarily for lining podmaketnikov, as well as the manufacture of models or fragments of a large scale.

Knife or planed plywood used for veneering substrata beneath the water surface, layout, etc., as well as in the layout of the building to show the interior, where the decoration is made tree.

Paper and cardboard are the most common and available materials.

Cardboard sheet may be rolled and various thicknesses (0.2 to 3 mm) and density. It is well painted and glued together. Is mainly used for manufacturing of relief. If cardboard to paste on both sides of paper sheets are rather strong tablets that can be used in the manufacture of different layouts.

Paper used mainly drawing (Whatman). White, dense, it is well cut and glued together with wood and cardboard (from it, for example, can be easily produced house layout). If the paper is wet - it is stretched, and having dried, compressed, acquiring former size. This property is used when pasting podmaketnikov, volumes in planning layouts of buildings and in the manufacture of tablets.


Plastics - materials, the main component of which are high molecular weight compounds and are under the influence of high temperature and pressure are capable of taking the desired shape, keeping it under normal conditions.

In most cases it is a mixture of different plastics materials. Certain selection of the latest and change their relationship can be given plastic collection of certain properties.

Obligatory part of any plastic macromolecular organic compound is called a binder. This - synthetic resins and cellulose ethers.

Plastics can contain fillers and plasticizers, solvents, colorants, lubricants, blowing agents, and some other special substance. Resin is integrally bound to all components of plastics.

As raw material for the production of synthetic materials used sand and water, salt, air, peat, shale, wood, coal, oil, gas, and all sorts of waste. However, the main raw materials - coal, oil and gas.

The main stages of processing materials in plastics are preparing synthetic resin, mixing it if necessary with the other components and manufacture the products themselves and materials.

Making models using only certain types of plastics.

Plexiglass layouts for manufacturing a polymer of methacrylic acid methyl ester - PMMA (acrylic, perspex or safety glass). By appearance it resembles ordinary silicate glass, but it has compared to the last many advantages.

Organic glass softens when heated , and upon cooling is returned to the solid state . This property is not lost and Thermoreversible under repeated heating and cooling processes . If heated to the softening state plexiglass using the tool to give any form , it will save her . This process is called spinning . Organic glass is insensitive to shocks and jolts , gives dangerous splinters easily machined , bent , polished , engraved , stamped , glued and most importantly - is not subject to weathering, which is important for the quality of the layout.

Organic glass sheet may be transparent colorless, transparent and opaque color with a filler.

Celluloid, is a solid solution of nitrocellulose in alcoholic solution of camphor, obtained based on the esters and ethers of cellulose and protein substances.

It is waterproof, easily machined and glues well; solid at ordinary temperatures, and is flexible and thin elastic plates; comes in the form of plates (transparent, white and dyed in various colors). The main drawback of celluloid - Flammability - was topchkom searches for material that is being nonflammable, would possess the same properties as the celluloid.

Tsellon colorless, transparent, light resistant plastic, obtained on the basis of cellulose acetate with a plasticizer; can be any color; in their mechanical properties are not different from celluloid and replaces it in the manufacture of models; not flammable.

Plastic SNP, became widespread in the manufacture of models for different purposes, has valuable properties: well processed, glued, stamped, pressed, successfully replaces flammable celluloid.

Plastic can be any color with all sorts of shades. He has good lightfastness, but for long term use in adverse conditions, mechanical properties of the material decreases slightly.

For the manufacture of plastic sheet layouts using marks 2, 3 and 4, is a sheet thickness of 1 mm to 4 mm, a width of 1100-1200 mm and a length of 1000 mm and more.

Foam plastics ultralight plastics. A specific feature of these materials obtained based on synthetic polymers is their heterogeneity and originality of the structure, which resembles the structure of hardened foam.

Foam plastics are characterized by low bulk density, well handled (easily cut, planed, which is very important in the manufacture of models), glued with different materials. Depending on the physico-chemical characteristics of polymer raw materials and manufacturing methods can obtain either foam or porous foams. Foam plastics differ not only in structure but also on the elastic characteristics: rigid, semi-rigid, flexible.

Hard foam grade 1 PVC (beige color) produced in the form of plates 600x600x45 mm, and also in the form of shaped articles.

Several other commercially produced foam, for example, stamps PF, PS-7, FC-20, FC-40, PE-1, which can be used for.

In the manufacture of bulk green elastic stockings used polyurethane foam.

Having a distinctive and pleasant to look at the structure, as well as other positive qualities foams are widely used in the manufacture of a wide variety of architectural models.


For bonding parts made of wood, cardboard and paper are different adhesives plant and animal origin (starch, scrapings, casein, albumin, rosin, etc.).

If synthetic materials such as organic glass, celluloid, polystyrene and others necessary to use special synthetic glues and solvents. When gluing products need to know not only the properties of adhesives, but also bonded materials that are porous (wood, cardboard, paper, foam, etc.) and non-porous (organic and silicate glass, celluloid, tsellon, plastic SNP, metals, etc.).

At work there is a need in the various bonding porous materials with porous, non-porous and porous, non-porous pyubom in case you need to know how to apply the adhesive to glue both parts and what should be the exposure to treatment after bonding.

For bonding wood, cardboard and paper used in the basis of carpenter's glue or PVA emulsion.

Joiner's glue (bone, skin or Mezdrovyj) of animal origin, produced in the form of tiles or gelatinous fluid work in hot, what it boiled in klejanku, ie a heated vessel with hot water receptacle is placed with the adhesive. During cooking, stir until the glue liquid, homogeneous mass.

For bonding paper and cardboard joiner's glue it should be brought to a small dilution. If the latter is made from tiles, their advance (night) put in the water to swell, and then boiled in the manner described above container for glue.

Carpenter's glue hygroscopic and is afraid of water, this is his flaw. Dries 1.5-2 hours.

Wood glue can be used casein glues. On the quality of gluing it better carpenter, served quickly, without heating, in any quantities as follows:

One of the dry powder takes two parts of water at room temperature, after thorough mixing for one half hour the mixture is allowed to settle somewhat, after which the adhesive is ready for use. After 3-4 hours it thickens and loses its bonding properties. Liquefy the solidified glue can not be, it would still be unfit for work. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare such an amount that is necessary for 4 hours. Casein glue dries 7 - 10 hours.

Synthetic glues successfully used for bonding various materials, including polymer. All of them depending on the starting materials may be divided into four main groups: adhesives based on condensation resin based adhesives polymerized resins, ester-based adhesives and rubber glues cellulose.

In appearance, synthetic glues are solid, liquid, and pasty film. To solvents solvents glues are divided into alcohol-soluble, water-soluble and insoluble.

In cases where it is necessary to produce only temporary gluing, apply water-soluble glue, allowing them to loosen the components without damage.

Alcoholic solutions of phenol-formaldehyde resin and polyvinyl butyral glues known as type BF.

Materials and Supplies.

Make the layout - it's not all, it is required to cover the correct protective and decorative layer.

Paint pigments are dissolved in liquids of different viscosity, which are called binders. By connecting to aqueous formulations include solutions glues of animal, vegetable and mineral origin, and to non-aqueous binder compositions - drying vegetable and mineral oils.

Paints are watercolor, gouache, tempera, poliviniletse-tatnye (PVA), oil, emulsion, etc.

Watercolor, gouache and tempera paints are mainly used for coating of paper and paperboard.

PVA paint (PVA), polyvinyl acetate emulsion obtained from adding colorants, well covers products from wood, cardboard, foam and other materials. This paint is diluted with water and does not require vrednodeystvuyuschih oils or solvents. Surfaces coated with PVA paint, have a smooth matte finish, have high mechanical strength and resistance to soap solutions (surface can be cleaned with sandpaper and wash with soap and water).

Enamels - represent abraded pigment suspension on various kinds of varnishes. By the nature of the binder enamel paints are divided into oil, gliftalevye, pentaftalevye, perchlorovinyl, water-based, nitroemali, bitumen, etc.

For coating articles made ??of organic glass, plastic and other SNP recommend using nitrocellulose, is a colloidal solution of nitrocellulose and resin in volatile organic solvents with the addition of a plasticizer and a pigment.

Varnishes and lacquers resins are solutions in oil, alcohol or other volatile organic solvents, with desiccants, plasticizers, and dyes (or without them). When they form a smooth coating, durable, shiny or matte surface. Lucky divided into oil-resin, alcohol and nitrovarnishes. Resin lacquers are solutions in alcohol often available shellac representing misalignment shellac in ethyl alcohol.

To apply bronzing oil varnish number 8, tsaponlak light or nitrovarnishes.

Dyes - stain, aniline, Nigrosine and others - are readily soluble in water and are used for staining, staining foam, moss, tissue and other materials.

Paints, enamels and varnishes applied to the surface by spray or brush. Varnish - tampon (pad of cotton wool wrapped cloth). Polishing is mainly used for parts of the timber or in the manufacture of surface.

Auxiliary materials.

Ancillary materials include solvents and thinners used to liquefy the thickened paints, enamels, lacquers and other non-aqueous compositions colorful, and other materials.

Solvent and the diluent is usually; used for washing dishes, hands, arms and removal is not completely dried paints and varnishes. For dilution and nitrocellulose thinner nitrovarnishes apply WFD or number 646. Widespread solvents - turpentine, gasoline, kerosene or mineral spirits. Harmful and flammable solvent are technical, benzene, xylene, etc.

For other materials include washes, soda, hydrochloric acid, soap, wax, pumice, sand and sandpaper, corundum powder, sand, etc. To remove hardened paints and varnishes used smyvku AFL-1.

Soda bicarbonate used for washing the organic glass and other surfaces contaminated with.

Hydrochloric acid (etched) used for brazing metal parts, and a 2% solution - for washing surfaces sooty.

Laundry soap (or detergents) products used for cleaning foam, celluloid tsellona etc.

Beeswax used for the preparation of matte colors, the wood and waxing.

Pumice stone, emery and sandpaper used in the grinding surfaces.

Corundum powder or sand can be used to backfill the lawns and other greenery.